Don’t let other people’s mistakes put you off preparing your own Will.

Every once in a while there is an unfortunate case of somebody making a mistake when attempting to prepare their own Will. A recent case in Florida has been reported, quite literally, thousands of times through different law blogs as a “cautionary tale” of how things can go badly wrong when you try to prepare your own Will. You can look up the case of “Aldrich v. Basile” and you will see about 100,000 results with headings like

“Case Illustrates Dangers of Executing a Will Without Legal Assistance”
“Do-It-Yourself Wills: Cheap Now, Expensive Later?”
“Why Preprinted or Online Legal Forms Are Not Advisable”

I’ll explain my position on this very sad situation by firstly summarizing exactly where Ms Aldrich went wrong. In an E-Z Will kit form she listed some specific assets to go to her sister and if the sister were to predecease her, the list of assets would go to her brother. Then a few years later her sister died, so she updated that Will with a handwritten note that stated;

This is an addendum to my will dated April 5, 2004. Since my sister Mary jean Eaton has passed away, I reiterate that all my worldly possessions pass to my brother James Michael Aldrich, 2250 S. Palmetto, S. Daytona FL 32119.

There were two issues; firstly her original Will only covered the list of assets, not everything else. However, even though the handwritten update covered “all my worldly possessions” it was only signed in the presence of one witness not two and so was not accepted by the courts.blank paper

With respect to the first error, this is unfortunately a limitation of blank form kits, and this is why we steer people away from them – It is easy to forget things. It is important to not confuse a blank form kit with a fully interactive service that guides you through the process and checks for errors. When a person makes a mistake with an E-Z Will kit form it is a warning bell for using this type of form, not for trying to prepare one’s own Will using interactive software. If you use a service like ours this mistake is absolutely impossible to make.

But I personally feel that the second error reflects badly on the Florida Supreme Court. In their ruling the judge stated that

Unfortunately, I surmise that, although this is the correct result under Florida’s probate law, this result does not effectuate Ms. Aldrich’s true intent. While we are unable to legally consider Ms. Aldrich’s unenforceable handwritten note that was found attached to her previously drafted will, this note clearly demonstrates that Ms. Aldrich’s true intent was to pass all of her “worldly possessions” to her brother, James Michael Aldrich

Thankfully an increasing number of jurisdictions have introduced laws that try to respect the intent of the testator and they will not allow true intent to be over-ruled by a technicality. In this case, everybody knows what Ms Aldrich meant, everybody knows what she wanted, but the lawyers and the courts successfully managed to throw this out. The court declared that Ms Aldrich had died without a Will and gave a share of the estate to her nieces according to intestate law.

The judge actually stated that she was deciding the case contrary to the testator’s “true intent”, Ms Aldrich did not want any of her estate to pass to her nieces, they were never mentioned in any of her documents. One legal blogger was very critical of the decision claiming that;

Apparently, the court wished to inflict post-mortem punishment on the testator for engaging in DIY estate planning….The court blamed the “unfortunate result” on the fact that Ann did not seek legal assistance in creating her estate plan. 

So now to the reaction and estate planning lawyers are collectively rubbing their hands with glee and providing all kinds of examples of why trying to prepare your own Will is a mistake. Like this one

A lot of times clients come in saying they want something very simple,” says Rubin. “But then you find out their daughter had a baby by artificial reproductive technology. If the definition of ‘child’ in your will isn’t up-to-date, you could disinherit your grandchild.

The claim is nonsense. This clearly does not happen “a lot of times” and perhaps the conclusion should be that if this situation does not apply to you, you can safely go the “do-it-yourself” route.

They then go on to say

These are the conditions each state requires for a will to be considered valid. The standard in Florida is two witnesses.“Every state has its own quirky rules,” cautions Rubin

Actually…it’s not that quirky, every single state requires two witnesses. Across the internet, the scaremongering goes on with countless obscure examples of how attempting to prepare one’s own Will is going to lead to trouble. As an aside, the vast majority of challenges are to Wills prepared by estate planning lawyers but we rarely see “a cautionary tale for what can happen if you use a lawyer to prepare your Will”.

The fallout of this unfortunate case leads me to the following recommendations;

Do not be scared off from preparing your own Will. It isn’t as complicated as some people want you to believe. If you have a complicated family situation then you need legal advice, but most people do not. From time-to-time there will be an article in the media about somebody who made a mistake with a Will kit. This does not mean that preparing your own Will is a bad idea. Over 65% of people do not have an up-to-date Will in place, and many of these are under the mistaken impression that you must use a lawyer to prepare a Will. You should take things into your own hands and make sure that your Will is in place.

Do not use a blank do-it-yourself Will kit, there is a very significant likelihood that you will make a mistake or not cover all situations that need to be covered. Blank forms have way too many spaces that have to be completely correctly. When you see a Will completed through our service you can appreciate how complicated the document can be, with various trust clauses and powers to the Executor. If you do not have a legal education you would not be able to create a well drafted Will using these kits.

Do not use a handwritten note to express your wishes; it opens your estate up to challenges and it may not fulfil the requirements of a Last Will and Testament or Codicil.

Do not use a Codicil to make an update to a Will. Just create a new Will. If you use an online service like ours, you can just login, make the change and print off a new Will. It’s easy.

I just wish that common sense would have prevailed and that the courts would have respected the final wishes of Ann Aldrich. It’s a real shame that they wouldn’t.

Tim Hewson is the President and Founder of the LegalWills group of companies. Offering online interactive estate planning services through LegalWills.ca, USLegalWills.com and LegalWills.co.uk. Founded in 2001, these services have become market leaders helping hundreds of thousands of people prepare their important legal documents.
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The scourge of the online Will kit

Here’s the problem; everybody needs a Will, but lawyers are too expensive and inconvenient. As a result 65 percent of people don’t have a Will. To address this issue, countless “downloadable Will forms” proliferate across the internet. People use these forms and their loved ones end up with a mountain of trouble.

Let’s explore the evidence;

Are lawyers really too expensive or inconvenient? According to the customers who come to LegalWills, yes, absolutely. They are being quoted anything up to $1200 or £800 for a simple Last Will and Testament, but more commonly it is in the region of $600 or £400. The more significant problem is that updates are being charged anything up to $100 or £50 per change. There is also a gap between what lawyers think people can pay, and what people are prepared to pay. I read this recently on a legal blog, written by an estate planning lawyer

At least once a week I get a call from a potential client. The question is always the same: “How much does X document cost?” This is always a perplexing question. Usually the answer is “I don’t know.”

I know of an attorney who agrees to quote the client a price over the phone if they can answer one simple question: “What color tie am I wearing today?” …This lawyer knows that people will protest- “how can I know what color tie you are wearing if I am not there?” The lawyer then points out (if the client has not gotten it already) that both questions are similar.

So here’s the disconnect; the lawyer thinks he is clever and the client is a bit dim. The prospective client on the other hand wants to know whether they should include in their household budget some money to prepare a Last Will and Testament. In order to do this, they need to get a feel for how much it will cost. I cannot think of any other situation where you would blindly procure a service, hand over your wallet and ask the service provider to charge you whatever they want (veterinarians and dentists aside!).

So most people end up without a Last Will and Testament in place, and of those that do, most are not kept up to date. So we find service providers offering a “downloadable Will” sometimes free of charge. I saw a new one just last week – I have embedded a screenshot of the body of it here. Last Will and TestamentThey have tried to convey some authenticity with some calligraphy at the top and an impenetrable legal sentence to kick off the document

 

I JOHN DOE KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS:

 

But the meat of the document comes in article IV, where you are given space to explain how you would like your estate to be distributed. Personally, I feel that this document should be illegal; it is preying on people who don’t want to pay for legal advice and who are trusting this company to provide them with a legally binding document. But it is nothing short of impossible to complete a satisfactory Will using a blank page like this. You need to create alternate plans, trusts, Executor powers, residual plans and without these you end up with an estate like Ann Aldrich who used E-Z Legal Forms to prepare her Will. She listed out her possessions and instructed all of these things to go to her beneficiary. Unfortunately she didn’t explain what should happen to everything else. The result was a family battle over her estate and a judgement that included this warning “I therefore take this opportunity to highlight a cautionary tale of the potential dangers of utilizing pre-printed forms”

Fortunately, there is a very large middle ground between expensive lawyers and dangerous blank forms, and this is being filled by interactive services like the ones at LegalWills.ca, LegalWills.co.uk and USLegalWills.com. These services guide you through the process with a series of questions, and then verifies that you have covered all scenarios. It only allows you to do things that your jurisdiction permits, and double checks for things like minor children having guardians and trusts set up appropriately. Clearly some people still need expensive legal advice and custom clauses to be written, but services like this work for the vast majority. So much so, that when a recent study from Oxford University listed the most likely jobs to be replaced by technology, paralegals were 4th on the list with a 94% probability of being replaced by software. Most people who have a Will written by a legal professional have their information typed into software and their Will generated from templates (the staff in the office usually do it), but online services like LegalWills are granting access to those tools directly to the consumer.

People are not likely to use a lawyer who refuses to tell them how much they will charge. But we are hoping that we can steer people away from blank form kits.

 

Aside

Keeping up to date with Estate Planning laws

This week in Canada, the Province of British Columbia enacted new laws for the preparation of Wills. The changes were described by some as “sweeping” and the “most significant update in the law for decades”. In reality though, there were only two meaningful changes for service providers like us. Firstly, it lowered the eligible age for preparing a Will from 19 to 16, and secondly it changed the law that automatically revoked a Will on marriage. I’m not quite sure why there was pressure to lower the eligible age; I know that the number of teenagers preparing a Will using our service is very, very low (we’ve had one this year according to our statistics). But the revoking on marriage certainly makes sense. Tragic as it may be, newlyweds can be involved in fatal accidents, and it doesn’t seem right that their Will would be voided because there hadn’t been an opportunity to make the update.Changes Coming

Many lawyers will cite changes in the law as a reason to avoid preparing your own Will, but of course, our services are always kept up-to-date. It does however make for an interesting challenge. Our service covers every State in the US (except Louisiana), every Province in Canada (except Quebec) and the UK (England and Wales only). This gives us over 60 different jurisdictions that have to be monitored. Most of the changes to estate planning law impact people who have not made a Will, and also the Execution of that Will. For example, the new BC law encourages the courts to try and figure out what the testator really meant in their Will, rather than have the estate tripped up on a technicality. The distribution of the estate for somebody who doesn’t have a Will was also changed in the new law, but we would hope that nobody would leave their estate distribution to the vagaries of intestate law and take the decisions into their own hands.

But it means that if you pick up a blank form kit in BC, there is a chance that it may now be invalidated because of the new law. Certainly, any help text associated with that kit would most likely be wrong. You also have to be very careful when using an online service and maybe even request information from the service provider on when they most recently had an update to the service. At LegalWills.ca, USLegalWills.com and LegalWills.co.uk we are diligent about monitoring estate planning laws across all jurisdictions, but other services may have gone online years ago and never been touched.

However, don’t let law changes scare you away from preparing your own Will, certainly at LegalWills.ca, USLegalWills.com and LegalWills.co.uk you can be assured that any change in the law will be reflected in our services on the day of the change.

 

 

Six ways the law is a hundred years out of date

DPRI-1-1706-M1_fullwilllargeAs the owner of a company that allows people to prepare their own Will – online, at any time, there are many services we would love to add, but are continually stymied by a law that fundamentally hasn’t changed in centuries. We live in a smartphone, biometric, social World which is entirely ignored by our legal system. Which would be fine if our current system worked, but it is horribly inefficient and open to fraud and exploitation. Given the gaping holes in the way our Wills law works today you would think that lawmakers would be jumping all over new technology to make the system work. Here are just a few ways that the head-in-the-sand approach comes up short;

1. A Will must be printed on a piece of paper;
Today we have video, digital assets, countless online social activity and the only way a Will can be valid is if it’s printed on a piece of paper. an “innovation” that’s been around for a couple of thousand years. The most obvious shortcomings of paper are that it burns easily, doesn’t stand up to flooding very well, is very difficult to find, not secure, easy to forge, and is not easy to update. The single most common question we receive at LegalWills is “my Dad has just passed away, and I know he had a Will, how can we find it?”. It would be relatively easy for us to have an online repository of Wills encrypted with digital signatures and made available to Executors exactly when they are required. Unfortunately the law doesn’t allow for this and currently the only legal document is on a piece of paper – lost, burned, or blown away in a hurricane.

2. A Will must be signed by a handwritten signature
This is perhaps the most ridiculous shortcoming of our existing laws. A scrawled signature is currently the only way of proving that a Will belongs to the person making the Will. Which leads to cases like this , where somebody has to call in a “handwriting expert” to validate the Will because “There are four signatures on it and none of them actually look like any of his signatures.” We sign into our phones with fingerprints, and biometric data. My smartphone uses face recognition to log me in. I can buy a door handle on Amazon that uses “subdermal fingerprint scan technology”, yet according to the law, my entire estate is protected by a chicken scratch signature. You then end up with multi-million dollar properties being contested because claimants “maintain that it is fake and <the testator> never made one”. Or people like this former police officer who “has admitted fraud over a will said to belong to his dead father.” His Dad didn’t have a Will, his son typed one up and passed it off as his Dad’s. Granted, he was caught, but for every one of these there are thousands of fraudulent Wills being presented as originals.

3. The inclusion of digital assets
Lawyers are starting to acknowledge the importance of digital assets, but have yet to come up with a secure, convenient way to tie these together with a printed Will. Generally speaking it’s a really bad idea to include your Facebook account information in your Will (Wills are public record once you pass away), but online accounts can have significant value. Domain names are still sold for tens of thousands of dollars. PaddyPower, PayPal, Bitcoin, WordPress accounts can be worth a lot of money. And of course, families may end up fighting over Flickr, Picassa, Facebook and iTunes accounts, so they should really have a named beneficiary.

4. Global assets
We live in a very mobile World and people hold assets in multiple jurisdictions, and indeed in some cases may not even know which jurisdiction the assets are held in. If I own $500k in Bitcoin currency, is this subject to inheritance taxes of any country? what if I live part of the year in the UK, part of the year in Dubai, and have a house in Florida and have a PartyPoker account? I recently read this article about differences between English and Scottish law which explains “The EU has very recently introduced new rules to help clarify the position in complicated situations, where the law of two or more EU countries could apply. From August 2015, most EU citizens will be able to choose whether the law applicable …should be under the rules determined by the country of their residence or the country of their nationality. However, the United Kingdom has chosen to opt out of these regulations.” In other words the UK has opted out of a law that will come into effect in two years time that will solve a 50 year old problem. Good luck finding resolution to the issues of today’s digital assets.

5. The cost of a lawyer
Lawyers continue to overcharge for their services. In most cases a lawyer will have a client complete a blank form, put the information into some software and generate a standard boilerplate Will. And then charge $600 or £400. Not in every case of course, but a lawyer should be able to say to a client “you know, that was a really simple Will, let’s call it $25” but it won’t happen. We’ve had people come to us having been quoted $1,200 for a Will. It’s just out of touch with reality, especially as Wills should be reviewed at least annually and updated regularly.

6. Using the services of a lawyer
We can automate and “app-ify” many things today. Online and smartphone applications are breaking new ground daily and it not difficult to conclude that if Intuit can build TurboTax for business, it is not much of a stretch to address everybody’s estate planning needs with self service tools. At LegalWills.ca, LegalWills.co.uk and USLegalWills.com we provide a service that works for about eighty percent of people, and we direct people to legal professionals for anything complicated. But it is well within our technical capabilities to provide an online tool that works for 99.9% of the population, probably more effectively that the legal profession. A Will is something that everybody should have, access to a lawyer should not be a roadblock to preparing a Will.

How to forge a Will

The title of course is tongue-in-cheek, but it seems that from all of the news lately, there has been a sudden spate of estate disputes and legal challenges. Either because a Will has been forged, signed under duress or written by somebody without the capacity to write the Will. These cases demonstrate that the prospect of an inheritance can bring out the worst in people, create rifts in families, and can result in very expensive legal battles that serve nobody other than the lawyers.

It starts with the bizarre trial of Peter/ Tony Chan who was convicted of forging the Will of Nina Wang – once Asia’s richest woman. Trying to forge a $4 Billion Will is a tricky crime to get away with, and it resulted in a 12 year jail sentence. But Mr Chan was not alone. Next was the Will of Harinder Singh Brar, Maharaja of Faridkot, with another $4 Billion estate. This time it was a team of staff members who connived to leave the entire estate to themselves in Trust, but the courts ruled that the Will was made under duress and therefore illegal.

However, it’s actually more likely that a Will would be manipulated or forged for a more modest estate, and this was the topic of a recent article in the Daily Telegraph discussing the rapid increase in legal battles over estates. There are three key reasons for this rise; firstly, the size of the average estate in the UK has risen from £150k to £265k in a decade. In addition, people are starting to depend on an inheritance as part of their own financial plan – consumer debt is rising and many are banking on an inheritance to get themselves out of debt. And finally, society in general has become more litigious over the years.

Contrary to popular opinion, writing a Will through an online service does not make the document any more likely to be challenged. In fact, just recently, a Will drawn up by a solicitor while in the presence of one daughter, was deemed invalid as the testator did not have mental capacity to write the Will. Turns out that the daughter (who happened to be a magistrate) put pressure on her mother to disinherit the other children. Oh, and she had to pay back the £18,000 in gifts she received in the last few months of her frail life. The real tragedy of this story though is that the estate was worth about £200k, and the whole lot disappeared in legal fees. The whole estate went to the lawyers.

There are some lessons to be taken from this troubling stories. Most importantly, write your Will when you are young enough and have the mental capacity to do it. People procrastinate with their Will writing, thinking that they will prepare it when they are older. We hear all the time people saying “fortunately, I don’t need a Will yet?”. Obviously you don’t, you don’t need a Will until you die, but it’s too late to write one then.

This is one of the reasons that online services like those offered by LegalWills.ca, USLegalWills.com and LegalWills.co.uk are becoming increasingly popular. They allow you to prepare your Will in your own time, on your own terms, but also allow you to update your Will throughout your life, as often as you wish. It makes sense to prepare a Will today, and then just update it as circumstances change.

Bleak House and your Last Will and Testament

I was recently reminded of the Charles Dickens novel Bleak House, which centres around the court case Jarndyce and Jarndyce. For those of you unfamiliar with the story; it tells of a legal battle over a large inheritance which is dragged on through the court system. In fact, it continues for generations until the case is finally closed.

as well as he could make out, it was over. Over for the day? we asked him. No, he said, over for good. Over for good! When we heard this unaccountable answer, we looked at one another quite lost in amazement. Could it be possible that the will had set things right at last and that Richard and Ada were going to be rich? It seemed too good to be true. Alas it was! ……”Mr. Kenge,” said Allan, appearing enlightened all in a moment. “Excuse me, our time presses. Do I understand that the whole estate is found to have been absorbed in costs?” “Hem! I believe so,”

The lawyers continued to fight the battle over the inheritance until the whole estate was absorbed in legal fees, at which time, the lawyers all stopped working on the case !! Jarndyce

The novel was written in 1853, in a very different World to the one we live in, but just yesterday I saw that, generations on, the legal profession still works in the same way. The bankruptcy of Nortel has so far racked up $755M in legal fees while the parties argue on how to divide $9B in assets, and after nearly a billion dollars in legal expenses, the proceedings are no closer to a resolution. The lawyers have no vested interest in drawing the case to a close as they can continue to bill $1000 an hour in fees.

So what does this mean for your estate? and how can you minimize your assets ending up in the hands of litigating lawyers?

  • Write your Will, make it clear and unambiguous.
  • Do not use a blank do-it-yourself form from a bookstore
  • Sign it according to the signing requirements in your jurisdiction (usually two witnesses must sign, who have no vested interest in the contents of the Will).
  • Write your Will while you are young enough to have the capacity to understand it.
  • Update your Will as soon as your personal or financial circumstances change.
  • Never make an update to a Will by writing on the document or putting lines through sections. Always prepare a new Will when you want to make a change.
  • If you have very complicated affairs, consider getting legal advice when preparing a Will.

It is a myth that preparing your own Will means that your estate is more likely to face a legal challenge. If you use an interactive online service like the ones offered at LegalWills.ca, USLegalWills.com and LegalWills.co.uk you can create a Will as complete and legal as a Will prepared by a lawyer or solicitor. In fact, if you look at the legal fights over Wills, they are frequently prepared by lawyers and we’ve discussed many in this blog, for example Huguette M. Clark, and Anna Nicole Smith. Often though, problems arise from Wills not being updated properly because circumstances change, and a return to a lawyer’s office is too expensive or inconvenient. This is why many people are turning to online services like those offered by LegalWills because it allows them to prepare the document conveniently, but more importantly, these services allow the users to update their document at any time, as often as they wish. In many ways, the services reduce the likelihood of a legal challenge, and the loss of the entire estate to legal fees.

New lessons from the famous – how to make a mess of a Will

We have seen many examples of famous people making a mess of their estate planning. In this blog we have described the situation of Stieg Larsson who failed to keep his Will up-to-date and also underestimated how much his estate would be worth. We also talked about  Anna Nicole Smith who didn’t update her Will after her child was born. Today we are going to highlight a very frequent mistake with the help of Gary Coleman who died over two years ago. Why now? because just last week a judgement was made on his estate which goes some way to illustrate the toll that a badly drawn up estate plan can have on loved ones. The family have been embroiled in a legal battle for nearly two years and a significant part of the estate has been lost to legal fees.

So what made Gary Coleman’s estate so troublesome?  Firstly, he had a Will written in 2005 naming his manager as the Executor and main beneficiary of his Will. But his ex-wife had a handwritten note from 2007 stating that she was the main beneficiary and Executor. Different jurisdictions have different laws regarding the status of a common-law spouse and the effect of marriage and divorce on the status of a Will, so there is no need to go into details of the judgement but there is a clear lesson here.

I actually feel sorry for Gary Coleman as many people find themselves in this situation. They have taken the time to prepare their Will (in this case in 2005), but in the space of a few years he married, divorced, then lived as common-law. Any lawyer would have advised him to update his Will on at least four or five occasions during those two years. But as we have discovered when dealing with customers at LegalWills many people are being charged as much to update a Will as it cost to create one in the first place. One person called our support line explaining that she had been quoted $100 “per change” to her Will. This puts people in a difficult situation where they try to handwrite changes on their Will, or even handwrite a “codicil” which is effectively what Gary Coleman did. Generally handwritten updates to Wills result in legal uncertainty, litigation, lawyer’s fees and acrimony between remaining loved ones.

This is why services such as those provided by LegalWills.ca, LegalWills.co.uk and USLegalWills.com are becoming increasingly popular. It is precisely because Gary Coleman used the services of a lawyer, that there became a barrier to updating his Will. If he had used an online interactive service, he simply could have logged into his account, made the change and printed off a brand new, up-to date document.